Tag Archives: bibliography

WTF: Daftar bacaan vs daftar pustaka (reblog)

8815739061_9198175166_z

 

 

 

 

(image: flickr/mypandorasbox, CC licensed)

Cerita ini awalnya ditulis dalam perjalanan, Bandung-Balikpapan-Bandung akhir tahun lalu. Sudah pernah dipublikasikan sebagai blogpost tapi dengan sangat banyak typos. Saya telah perbaiki typos dan tambah pada beberapa bagian untuk menjadi tulisan ini.

Daftar pustaka itu penting dan bukan sekedar formalitas atau sebuah bab di halaman paling akhir dari tugas akhir atau paper anda. Seperti yang telah saya sampaikan dalam beberapa posts “Mengapa daftar pustaka penting?”, “Memulai skripsi dari daftar pustaka”, dan “Ctrl-F”, sangat penting untuk memperhatikan Daftar Pustaka (DF). Tapi ada lagi istilah yang lain, Daftar Bacaan.

Apa lagi ini?

Jangan panik dulu. Ini hanyalah daftar materi yang telah anda baca. Jadi belum tentu anda pakai sebagai rujukan dalam teks. Apapun yang telah anda temukan, yang telah anda baca masuk ke dalam kategori ini. Mungkin hasilnya ada 50 item bacaan.

Setelah itu apa?

Setelah itu anda seleksi, mana yang relevan dengan konteks makalah, penelitian, atau apapun yang sedang anda tulis.

Stop sarapan dulu ya

Apa saja kriteria “relevan”?

Menurut Peat et.al (2002) dalam bukunya Scientific writing is easy: when you know how dan pengalaman saya, maka ada beberapa kriteria:

  1. relevan dari sisi lokasi geografis: kita bekerja di bidang ilmu kebumian, jadi lokasi geografis sangat penting sebagai salah satu kunci (baca juga Bagaimana Indonesia “ditemukan”?
  2. relevan dari sisi metode: coba anda cari bahan-bahan yang sama atau mirip dari sisi metode dengan apa yang akan anda lakukan.
  3. relevan dari sisi hasil: coba anda buka hipotesis anda, kemudian cari bahan yang hasilnya mirip atau sama dengan hipotesis anda.

Daftar Pustaka bisa jadi lebih sedikit dibanding Daftar Bacaan. Seleksi dilakukan dengan cara membaca kritis (critical reading) bahan-bahan bacaan kita. (apa pula ini? kapan-kapan ya)

Membaca kritis sangat diperlukan karena alur pikir sangat dikendalikan oleh apa yang telah kita baca. Jadi benar kata orang (entah siapa), bahwa untuk menulis dengan baik, seseorang harus banyak membaca.

Celaka 12 bukan.

Setelah itu lalu?

Setelah daftar bacaan anda seleksi, maka itu adalah calon Daftar Pustaka anda. Kemudian anda tinggal sisipkan item tersebut dalam teks anda. Tentunya lokasi penyisipan harus relevan dengan aliran cerita dalam teks.

Loops

Akan ada tiga tahapan: pencarian literatur (literature search) untuk membuat daftar bacaan (reading list), penyaringan daftar bacaan (filter), membuat sitasi dalam teks (in-text citation) untuk membuat daftar pustaka (Reference list/bibliography). Alur tahapan ini bisa bersifat linear, sekaligus juga loop (siklus) yang berulang. Loop bisa besar dari bawah ke atas untuk mengoreksi tahapan literature search atau loop kecil yang mengoreksi in-text citation.

BibliographicalLoop

 

 

 

 

BibliographicalLoop (pdf format)

Apa perkakas (tools) yang diperlukan?

Oya supaya lebih otomatis (baca: keren) gunakan tools reference library dlm piranti lunak pengolah kata anda. Sudah ada kok sejak jaman WordStar dan ChiWriter (maaf buat yg ngerti pasti hanya generasi 80 dan 90 an). Kita saja (termasuk saya) yang tidak pernah tahu atau belajar menggunakan fasilitas ini. Jadi ceritanya kalau kita sebut nama suatu artikel dalam teks, maka secara otomatis identitas makalah tersebut akan  muncul si bagian akhir dokumen di bab daftar pustaka.

Stop dulu boarding ya 🙂

Kalau sekarang ada Zotero dan Mendeley yang free, atau kalau anda sedang studi di LN, kebanyakan akan menyediakan lisensi EndNote untuk mahasiswa. Ikut kursus saya Reference Management ya.

Beberapa tahun yang lalu saya sempat mengunggah (upload) tutorial bagaimana menggunakan fasilitas itu di Microsoft Word, silahkan buka menu Download di website ini atau di derwinirawan.wordpress.com. Kembali ke bahasan kita.

Menulis is a matter of precision (walaupun saya masih sering juga ditegur istri saya, yang juga sering jadi proof reader). Ini berlaku di semua bagian dalam karya ilmiah, termasuk urusan daftar pustaka, membuat sitiran, merujuk gambar, merujuk tabel, serta bagian ucapan terimakasih (acknowledgement) (ini yang sering lupa). Kapan-kapan saya akan tulis mengenai hal ini dalam serial (W)riting’s (T)otally (F)un.

Penutup

Jadi jelas ya ada daftar bacaan (reading list) ada pula daftar pustaka (bibliography atau references). Jelas bedanya, tidak semua yang ada dalam “Daftar Bacaan” ada dalam “Daftar Pustaka“.

Setiap frasa, pendapat, analisis harus jelas milik siapa. Kalau milik penulis lain, maka yakinkan namanya ada dalam tulisan dan daftar pustaka kita. Bila tidak ya siap-siap dituduh plagiat atau penjiplak. Suatu tuduhan yang sungguh berat untuk kesalahan yang sepele dan hanya perlu sedikit waktu yang disisihkan untuk memeriksa teks/naskah. Modalnya hanya Ctrl-F.

Walaupun kita selalu inginnya Ctrl-Alt-Del terus Power Off hehe.

Selanjutnya, mengapa kita melakukan riset … (sarapan dulu)

Lho bukannya tadi sudah?

Ini sudah beda hari.

Wrong image gives you LaTeX error

texstudio

False image format can cause premature end{document} in LaTeX

Dear friends,

I posted my problems on Microsoft Powerpoint (ppt) yesterday, at my wp blog. Binaries just give you more than just a bunch of 0 and 1. Versioning problem was just one of them. Newer version creates file that older version can’t open. Or perhaps older version has more features but then got removed in the newer version.

That’s why I try to move slowly to text file or ASCII (http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/t/textfile.htm). Being formerly a binary guy, syntax error warnings give me cramps.

And this was another LaTeX adventure. This morning I managed to solve a weird problem with my LaTeX codes. It kept showing the following warnings (I used TeX Studio by the way):

  • no bibdata ... and
  • no bibstyle ...

The main TeX file seemingly couldn’t fine the bib file. Both text (or ASCII) files are two of main files in Latex typesetting. The Tex file stores the body text and commands, while the bib file stores the reference information in Bibtex format.

So as I took myself in pages of Stack Exchange discussions, most of the answers direct me to:

  1. check the bibtex format for missing , or missing {}.
  2. missing file in the latex distribution due to installation or upgrade failure.
  3. premature end{document} command. They argue the mis-placement of such command could also make Latex ignore the bibliography{} and bibliographystyle{} commands that usually placed at the end of the main text.

All of them was checked, and double checked, and yet, both warnings still popped.

Then I went sleep mode on it.

The next morning I tried the other way around. I checked the main tex file line by line from preamble section down to the bibliography section. So I made a new Tex file and then copy-paste each section and subsection from the existing tex file.

The preamble part was safe. It looked like this.


documentclass[english]{article}
usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
usepackage[latin9]{inputenc}
usepackage{setspace}
usepackage{graphicx}
usepackage{natbib}
usepackage{booktabs}
usepackage{url}
onehalfspacing
usepackage{babel}

And at the end of my file, I placed the following commands.

bibliographystyle{plainnat} %because I used natbib pkg
bibliography{foo}
end{document}

Then I checked the sections and subsections. All were ok, until I stumbled upon this lines.

begin{figure}
    includegraphics{abc.jpg}
    caption{abc is not def or even xyz}
    label{fig:abc}
end{figure}

They were basic commands to insert figure in Latex. If I deleted the lines, the compiling went smooth. But it was the other way around when I ran the lines.

Then I changed the jpg file with another file. Strangely it went OK. So I checked the image to see what was wrong with it.

It turned out that my jpg image was actually a gif image. Although both formats are classified as raster formats, but they are not completely twin brothers (or sisters). Hence I rename it.

And what do you know. The one line that all Latex users are looking for out of the compilation process.

process exited normally

Google’s {not Grey’s} Anatomy

slide

(from personal collection)

Dear friends, I write this post related to the previous post:

  1. Bibliography Part 1: One more thing about Bibliography
  2. Bibliography Part 2: Playing with your keywords

Our subject today is Google Scholar. It was a a freely accessible web search engine that specialises in indexing scholarly literature across an array of publishing formats and disciplines. The beta version of it was released in November 2004.

What it does? It indexes peer-reviewed online journals of Europe and America’s largest scholarly publishers, books and other non-peer reviewed journals. Then its scope was broaden to literature entries from across the globe.

The following list is the complete list of what will show up on your screen as soon as you hit enter:

  1. Articles in conventional1 peer-reviewed journals (eg: Journal of Hydrology, Journal of Environmental Earth Science, etc).
  2. Articles in open access2 peer-reviewed journals (eg: Hydrology and Earth System SciencesEnvironmental Research Letters, etc)
  3. Books and or e-books (eg: Time Series eBookForecast eBook)
  4. Articles in conference proceedings (eg: European Geosciences UnionAmerican Geophysical Union, etc)

All the above three entries are called published materials. Number 1, 2 are your main targets and number 3 is the next best thing. You can use number 4 only if it has the full paper, not just the abstract. However, you can always cite them if you feel like you understand the abstract completely.

Whereas the following list is the non-published materials:

  1. Thesis, dissertations. Authors have all the rights to upload their thesis on their blogs or other website.
  2. Project reports. Some institutions make their reports available for download. Some are in the form of executive summary, but many times you would find a complete report uploaded in pdf format.
  3. Newspaper articles.
  4. Personal blogs (eg this blog, Budi RahardjoWaskita AdijartoKieran Healy’s blogRob Hyndman. This is another thing that I want to say. Everyday I find more and more prominent researcher maintains a blog about their work.

See you in the next post: Google’s Anatomy-2


  1. Conventional journal: free for authors, but readers must pay to download 
  2. Open Access journal: free for readers, but authors must pay for submission 

 

— This post was written using: Re-Text on Ubuntu 13.10 —

Markdown: Writing starts in “plain” Re-text

re-text

 

 

 

 

 

Dear friends,

Don’t expect fancy stuff in this post. It’s just my way to show you how powerful “plain” text can be these days. I wrote this post using Re-Text 4.1.2 on Ubuntu 13.10.

The following text is the source Markdown text file. I’m still learning on how to use in-text ciation, inserting bibliography, in-text figure and text referencing, table of content (TOC), and list of figures/tables.

 1
 2
 3
 4
 5
 6
 7
 8
 9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
Bibliography Part 2: Playing with your keywords. A Google Scholar examples
===

* Author: Dasapta Erwin Irawan(@dasaptaerwin), Andriyanti, Rizal Debrian, Iwan Setiawan
* Affiliation: Department of Geology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia
* Composed using: [ReText 4.1.2](http://sourceforge.net/projects/retext/), [Linux Ubuntu 13.10](http://releases.ubuntu.com/13.10/)
* How to cite:

>```Irawan, D., Andriyanti, Setiawan, I. and Debrian, R. (2014). Bibliography Part 2: Playing with your keywords. A Google Scholar examples. [online] My little online books. Available at: http://goo.gl/fYT7dW [Accessed {your access date}].```

#1. Intro

Dear friends, 

We've talked about how overwhelming first search is. Tonnes of links with no idea on how to screen in it. Well that's why we call it _brainstorming_ everyone ([have a look at this here](http://www.wikihow.com/Brainstorm)). 

This post is related to the previous post:

1. [Bibliography Part 0: Why is it important (In Indonesia language)](http://derwinirawan.wordpress.com/2013/01/14/mengapa-daftar-pustaka-penting/)
2. [Bibliography Part 1: First search is always overwhelming](http://onlinewaterbook.wordpress.com/2014/06/29/part-1-one-more-thing-we-need-to-know-about-bibliography/)


I tried out these keywords on [Google Scholar](scholar.google.com) and captured the results as see in the following images:

1. ```geothermal west java```
2. ```geothermal (AND) west java```
3. ```geothermal (IN TITLE) west java```


#2. ```geothermal west java```
Use the above keywords if you want to see the broad image of the subject ```geothermal``` **(AND/OR)** ```west java```. Google Scholar (Gscholar) will look for any entries with the both words online. So you would see _all_ materials with both words or individual word anywhere in the text (see Figure \ref{Figure 1}):

* could be in the title, 
* could be in the abstract,
* or it could be in the body text 

![Figure 1](/media/dasapta/DATA/2014-SYDNEY/2014-blogpost/blog-bibliography/gscholar1.png "Keywords: ```geothermal west java```")



#3. ```geothermal (AND) west java```
Use these keywords with __(AND)__ operator to command Gscholar to _only_ look for materials with both words anywhere in each entries. You can see a total of 5940 results. Kind of give you a major headache doesn't it. But the first 5 to 10 result pages will show only you materials with both keywords, and then you can see that the later pages show only one of the keyword (see Figure \ref{Figure 2}). 

![Figure 2](/media/dasapta/DATA/2014-SYDNEY/2014-blogpost/blog-bibliography/gscholar2.png "Keywords: ```geothermal (AND) west java```")

So there you go, your first screened Gscholar results.



#4. ```geothermal (IN TITLE) west java```
Use these keywords with __(IN TITLE)__ operator to command Gscholar to _only_ look for materials with both words in the title on each entry (see see Figure \ref{Figure 3}).

![Figure 3](/media/dasapta/DATA/2014-SYDNEY/2014-blogpost/blog-bibliography/gscholar3.png "Keywords: ```geothermal (AND) west java```")

I recommend to use this operator for initial search to increase the chance of getting what you need. 

From the following attachments, we can see that Re-Text can convert md file to odt and pdf file smoothly. However for those of you that still use Ms.Word, you can use pandoc. It’s a cool way to convert md file to almost any format you can thing of, including doc format.

Herewith I attached:

  1. blogbib.pdf: converted by Re-Text)
  2. blogbib-html: converted by Re-Text, change the extension to html first
  3. blogbib.odt: converted by Re-Text, you can open it with LibreOffice or OpenOffice
  4. blogbib.doc: converted by Pandoc using pandoc blogbib.md -o blogbib.doc in your Linux/Mac terminal and Windows prompt.

WTF: Playing with your keywords (Bibliography Part 2)

Bibliography Part 2: Playing with your keywords. A Google Scholar examples

Irawan, D., Andriyanti, Setiawan, I. and Debrian, R. (2014). Bibliography Part 2: Playing with your keywords. A Google Scholar examples. [online] My little online books. Available at: http://goo.gl/fYT7dW [Accessed {your access date}].

1. Intro

Dear friends,

We’ve talked about how overwhelming it is  to use un-planned keyword in your research. Tonnes of links with no idea on how to screen in it. Well that’s why we call it brainstorming (have a look at this here).

This post is related to the previous post:

  1. Bibliography Part 0: Why is it important (In Indonesia language)
  2. Bibliography Part 1: First search is always overwhelming

I tried out these keywords on Google Scholar and captured the results as see in the following images:

  1. geothermal west java
  2. geothermal (AND) west java
  3. geothermal (IN TITLE) west java

2. geothermal west java

Use the above keywords if you want to see the broad image of the subject geothermal (AND/OR) west java. Google Scholar (Gscholar) will look for any entries with the both words online. So you would see all materials with both words or individual word anywhere in the text (see Figure ref{Figure 1}):

  • could be in the title,
  • could be in the abstract,
  • or it could be in the body text
Fig 1: Keyword groundwater west java
Fig 1: Keyword groundwater west java

3. geothermal (AND) west java

Use these keywords with (AND) operator to command Gscholar to only look for materials with both words anywhere in each entries. You can see a total of 5940 results. Kind of give you a major headache doesn’t it. But the first 5 to 10 result pages will show only you materials with both keywords, and then you can see that the later pages show only one of the keyword (see Figure ref{Figure 2}).

Fig 2: Keyword groundwater (AND) west java
Fig 2: Keyword groundwater (AND) west java

So there you go, your first screened Gscholar results.

4. geothermal (IN TITLE) west java

Use these keywords with (IN TITLE) operator to command Gscholar to only look for materials with both words in the title on each entry (see see Figure ref{Figure 3}).

Fig 3: Keyword groundwater (IN TITLE) west java
Fig 3: Keyword groundwater (IN TITLE) west java

I recommend to use this operator for initial search to increase the chance of getting what you need.

[Part 1] One more thing we need to know about Bibliography

bibliometrics

[image from: http://blogs.bournemouth.ac.uk%5D

Author:

* Dasapta Erwin Irawan
* Andriyanti
* Iwan Setiawan
* Rizal Debrian

Affiliation: Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung

How to cite this page:

Irawan, D., Andriyanti, Setiawan, I. and Debrian, R. (2014). Bibliography Part 1: The first search is always overwhelming. [online] My little online books. Available at: http://onlinewaterbook.wordpress.com/2014/06/29/part-1-one-more-thing-we-need-to-know-about-bibliography/ %5BAccessed 26 Jun. 2014].

My co-authors, found the fact that there were over 1000 abstracts using the words West Java in the database of Annual Indonesia Association of Geologist Proceeding. This organization is the biggest geologist organization in Indonesia. We are planning to filter the list with the following keywords:

  1. We use IN(TITLE) option in every search
  2. We use the following keywords combinations:
Stage English Indonesia
Stage one West Java Jawa Barat
Stage one geothermal geotermal
panasbumi
panas bumi
hotspring mataair panas
hot spring mata air panas
volcanogenic volkanogenik
vulcanogenic vulkanogenik

So the result is we need to know the number of papers that correspond to the following complete keywords in the title.

Keyword 1 (AND) keyword 2 Number of publ Publ type: Keyword 1 (AND) keyword 2 Number of publ Publ type:
geotermal Jawa Barat ??? geothermal West Java ???
panasbumi Jawa Barat ??? ???
panas bumi Jawa Barat ??? ???
vulkanogenik Jawa Barat ??? vulcanogenic West Java ???
volkanogenik Jawa Barat ??? volcanogenic West Java ???
mataair panas Jawa Barat ??? hotspring West Java ???
mata air panas Jawa Barat ??? hot spring West Java ???

3.We will also list all the publications time-wise, so we can me a time series chart to see the trend of papers with each keyword combination as show in the previous table.

We are going to use:
1. general search using Google Scholar dan Scopus, without pre-screening the source.
2. pre-screened search. We are going to focus on several Indonesia-scale large academic event: Annual Meeting of Indonesia Association of Geologist, Indonesia Association of Geophysics, and Indonesia Petroleum Association.

Why do we plan to do the “pre-screened” search? Because we believe there will be abundant papers that presented in those events but not going online.

Anyway, these two entries were the earliest result of this work. Buckle Up Guys:

  • Sriwana, T., van Bergen, M.J., Sumarti, S, de Hoog, J.C., van Os, B.J., Wahyuningsih, R., Dam, M.C. (1988), “Volcanogenic pollution by acid water discharges along Ciwidey River, west Java,” Jour. Geochem. Exploration, 62, p. 161-182. (Pencemaran hulu sungai Ciwidey akibat asupan polutan volkanogenik dari kawah putih, dan atenuasi polutan akibat pengenceran oleh air“bersih” )
  • Layman, E.B, Soemarinda, S. (2003), “The Patuha Vapor Dominated Resource, West Java, Indonesia.” Proc.28th Workshop. Geoth. Res. Engginering, Stanf ord Univ. SGP-TR-173 (Sistem Geothermal gunung Patuha serta manifestasi permukaan, sejarah dan perkembangan proyek Geotermal gunung Patuha)

The first 3 common mistakes in writing

mac and coffee and many scratches
mac and coffee and many scratches

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

These are the first 3 common mistakes in writing. Why 3? at least the number was taken from the latest Referrat class in geology.

  1. Lack of motivation. From the situation that I can catch from the class, was that, some students did their homework just for passing the course. Also as seen in the Referat class, I sensed the same situation. The result, nonetheless, was a very poorly-checked article (see http://erwinirawansblog.blogspot.com/2012/08/ctrl-f-to-find-references.html), with many typo errors, and the most important think was the references and citations.
  2. Writing from the front. You should start to write from last page of your article, yes, references or bibliography. Exactly. Many students made a critical errors in citations and references,  because they only saw them as a title of a book or article (see http://erwinirawansblog.blogspot.com/2013/01/memulai-skripsi-dari-daftar-pustaka.html and http://erwinirawansblog.blogspot.com/2013/01/blog-post.html). On the other hand, they should be the basis of our article. They should think of it as a someone else’ work, which he/she also met the same obstacle to finish the work as we did, that we must appreciate and pay some respects. If you take this “bibliography” part really serious, than you don’t make such mistakes.
  3. Title first ask question later. Some students think that they should first choose the title before designing article’s structure. If you did this, then unless you’re a Pulitzer level author, at many times you will feel that you choose the wrong title for you article. So please do check your article one last time and then evaluate your title, whether it reflects the article’s structure or not. For instance, if you do not choose the title “Statistical Evaluation of xxxxxx” if you’re article only contains one correlation chart. After you have a match title, then you go to the abstract (see http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/impactofsocialsciences/2011/06/20/essential-guide-writing-good-abstracts/)

I am writing this does not mean I always write very good and perfect articles, but as a novice writer that have received many rejection letters and comments.