Out of office

From 12 to 19 July, I will be at Karangsambung, Kebumen, Mid Java. I am there to assist students in field camp program. So I won’t be able to update articles since the nearest internet line is 20 km away from the camp site. Instead, I will update this site with many adventorous story. See you then.

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European tastes in elephant’s nest

Ridiculous title. It was my hobby to take snapshots of cars, especially unique European cars. This time I took the pictures inside my campuss, Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB). Why European cars, the answer is simple, unique, comfort, and reliable. Why elephant’s nest, because ancient Ganesha, an Hindu’s god of science and knowledge is depicted as an sitting elephant. So, enjoy the shots.

european-taste-in-elephants-nest1.jpgeuropean-taste-in-elephants-nest2.jpg european-taste-in-elephants-nest5.jpg

The 505

The Peugeot 505 was a large family car produced by the
French manufacturer Peugeot from 1978 to 1992. The 505 was the replacement for the Peugeot 504 (although European production of that car continued until 1983, and it is
still sold in developing markets today), and was available in sedan/saloon and station wagon/estate body styles, with the Family Estate model featuring 8-seats. The styling was similar to the 504. It is known as the “Work Horse” of Africa today. It
is a very popular car in many African countries.

The 505 was praised by contemporary journalists for its ride and handling, especially on rough and unmade roads; perhaps ne reason for its popularity in less developed countries. The 05 also had good ground clearance; in the 1980s, Dangel ade a four wheel drive version of the 505 estate equipped with either the intercooled turbodiesel 110 hp (81 kW) engine or the 130 hp 2.2 L petrol (96 kW) engine. The four wheel drive 505 also had shorter gear ratios. The range was given a facelift, including an all new interior, in 1986, but European Peugeot 505 production egan to wind down following the launch of the smaller Peugeot 405 at the end of 1987, and ended in 1992, some time after the introduction of the larger Peugeot 605, although the car is still manufactured in Africa.

In some countries such as France and Germany, the 505 estate was used as an ambulance, a funeral car, police car, military vehicle and as a road maintenance vehicle. There were prototypes of 505 coupés and 505 trucks, and in France many people have modified 505s into pickup trucks themselves. The 505 was one of the last Peugeot models to be sold in the United States, with sales ending there in 1991. Both the sedan (saloon) and tation wagon (estate) remain popular in Africa, where they are still locally assembled, and are used as longdistance bush taxis. 505s were also sold in Australia, China, and New Zealand. In New York City, Peugeot 505s were used as taxicabs (from Wikipedia).

505 sketches

pegeot 505 abram erwin

[Volcanic hydrogeology] Spatial Analysis of Volcanic Hydrogeology at Mt. Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

Regional Conference, Kota Kinabalu Malaysia

Abstract Submission Form

Corresponding Author: Dr. T.A. Bogaard

Address:

Department Physical Geography

Faculty of Geosciences

Utrecht University

P.O.Box 80115

3508TC Utrecht

The Netherlands

Email: t.bogaard@geo.uu.nl
Fax: +31-30 2531145

Title of paper:

Spatial Analysis of Volcanic Hydrogeology at Mt. Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

Author(s) and Affiliations

Thom Bogaard

Department of Physical Geography,Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands (e-mail: t.bogaard@geo.uu.nl)

D. Erwin Irawan

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mineral Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.id)

Deny Juanda Puradimaja

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mineral Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.ac.id)

Abstract (no more than 200 words)

Volcanic slopes are important sources of water. Due to altitude effects they receive significant amounts of precipitation whereas the lower regions often receive far less (<500 mm/year). In densely populated tropical regions, like Java, Indonesia, this water source is of increasing importance both for irrigation and domestic uses. The use of water from volcanic slopes is, however, not without risk as volcanoes are very important sources of toxic contaminants. The relatively small discharge volume and large spatial variability of the volcanic deposits make it difficult to assess the characteristics of the local groundwater systems and to calculate the water balance.

This paper describes a methodology to analyse both water quality and quantity using spring discharge information and relate it to volcanic geomorphology.

As case study, more then 100 springs are monitored and analysed on Mt. Ciremai, central Java, Indonesia. The results show radial flow patterns, a dependency on slope aspect and altitude and lithology. The aquifer system was found to be a combination of porous (several meters) and fractured rock that is built up of lava and volcanic breccias.

This paper will elaborate on the relationship between volcanic geomorphology and hydrology that was found and discuss how this information could be used for assessing the spatial patterns of local groundwater systems on volcanic slopes.

List up to 4 key words:

1 Water quality

2 volcanoes

3 Groundwater systems

4 spatial patterns

Session Preference:

Preference 1: Environmental Geomorphology

Preference 2: Rapid Changes and Human Respones

Hydrogeological Analysis in Regional Planning of Tigaraksa City, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia

Hydrogeological Analysis in Regional Planning of Tigaraksa City,
Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia

Deny Juanda Puradimaja

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mineral Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.ac.id)

B. Kombaitan

Research Group on Regional Planning, School of Architecture, Planning, and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: kombaitan@pl.itb.ac.id)

D. Erwin Irawan

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mineral Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.ac.id)

Keywords: groundwater basin, groundwater recharge area, regional planning

Submitted to: Jurnal Geoaplika

Abstract

Since 1980’s large scale housing has been developed at suburban areas of Jakarta to respond the needs. Tigaraksa is one of the areas, with 1.110 km2 area, 3.185.944 of population. The area then was selected as the capital of Tangerang Regency. The goal of this paper is to reconfirm the hydrogeological condition of Tangerang Regency, especially Tigaraksa area based on new data as materials to evaluate the hydrogeological role of the area. To achieve the goal, the methodology must cover surface and sub surface condition. Surface observation and geoelectrical mapping has been done to expose the hydrogeological setting as working basis for planners. It can be concluded that Tigaraksa area lies on the recharge area of Tangerang Regency. Based on hydrogeological mapping, it can be found that there are layers of porous formation exposed in the area then dipped northward. This condition shows the importance of hydrogeological considerations to spatial planning. It is essential for future regional planning to converts the area as groundwater conservation area with artificial recharge methods, without reducing its current function as capital city.

1. BACKGROUND

Since 1980’s large scale housing has been developed at suburban areas of Jakarta to respond the needs (Winarso dan Kombaitan, 1997). One of them is Tigaraksa which then be used as the capital of Tangerang Regency (Figure 1 and Table 1). The statistics of the area are 1.110 km2, 3.185.944 of population, 2869 of density.

Sustainability concept makes a bridge between today and future. Usage of natural resources without exhausting them. The balance between utilization and conservation of the natural resources.

Figure 1. Map of town distribution in Jabodetabek area (in hectares, Ha)

Table 1. List of town distribution in Jabodetabek area (in hectares, Ha)

2. OBJECTIVES

The hydrogeological and spatial planning study is objected to reconfirm the hydrogeological condition of Tangerang Regency, especially Tigaraksa area based on new data. The study will be used as materials to evaluate the appropriate step to conserve water recharge in the area.

3. METHODOLOGY

Hydrogeological condition is a combination of two main aspects: the solid and the fluid. The solid aspect comprises the material and the geometry of an aquifer and the hydraulic properties of the aquifer; while the fluid aspect involves the hydraulic behaviour of the groundwater. Therefore, two complementary methods have been carried out in this study (Figure 2):

(1). Surface mapping of volcanic aquifer system with 1 : 25.000 scale, to identify the geometry of the aquifer and the hydraulic properties of soil (unconfined aquifer). The data were obtained from observation of nearly 100 wells and 20 geoelectrical shot points.

(2). Flow net analysis, to identify the groundwater flow system. The main data is groundwater level position.

Figure 2. Flowchart of the research

4. BACKGROUND THEORIES

4.1 Sustainable Regional Planning

Planning is a decision-making process regarding “the future”. On each scale of planning process, spatial rules of the social life have been formed. In planning process preparing scenarios on community scale, firstly spatial analyses should be carried out. Several regional planning issues of new town / large-scale housing development: Peri-urbanization processes: “kotadesasi”; Productive agricultural land conversion to urban use’ Job-housing mismatch: toward a self-contained new town development; Sustainable principles: Macro level: physical suitability of such development; Micro level: land use based on land suitability analyses.

Throughout the world, spatial planning strategies focusing on the sustainable development have ecological approach. Both regional and urban planning processes have been based upon ecological issues. Each land is not suitable for every kind of land uses or is suitable for only one land use from the natural resource point of view. Two important analyses in urban planning processes: a) Supply side: development capacity analyses; b) Demand side: development needs analyses; c) Sustainable approach: balancing the demand to supply side. Development capacity analyses: a) Macro level: physical suitability of such development; b) Micro level: -> location suitability mapping: Spatial pattern of factors is sensitive to local principles -> Relative suitability of locations for specific land use categories (Figure 3).

4.2 Hydrogeological Considerations in Regional Planning

Large scale housing requires continuous supplies of water. This has been the major issue for cities and regions in Indonesia. Regional planning theories recognizes six physical parameters biotic and non biotic: slope, rock / soil, water, vegetation, earth resources, and geological hazards. Therefore, it can be noticed that planning needs to identify natural resources and potentials. The position of water in third rank suggests the critical role of water as controlling factor in regional planning. Moreover, hydrogeological condition plays important role to regional planning design, which is composed of three parts (Figure 4): hydrometeorology, hydrology or watershed, and hydrogeological basin. The technical procedures must be convergence between mapping stages as drawn on Table 2.

Figure 3. The five tasks for land classification and urban land use design (Kaiser et al., 1995)

Figure 4. The three integrated system of water (G. Castany, 1982)

Table 2. The convergence of groundwater potential evaluation in planning stages

(Deny Juanda P., 2006).

Consecutively groundwater as part of water resources needs to manage based on hydrogeological basin. Therefore groundwater management must consist of: hydrogeological mapping in various scale (regional and technical), understanding of hydrogeological character of INPUT (recharge area) – PROCESSES (flowing area) – and OUTPUT (discharge area), control on groundwater contamination (natural and man-made contamination) through optimization and groundwater conservation, and control on aquifer capacity to supply sustainable water needs (Figure 5).

Recharge area is where rain or surface water infiltrates to the aquifer. Discharge area is where many groundwater springs emerge to surface. Flowing area is where the groundwater flows from recharge to discharge area. The 3 areas are controlled by geological condition. As a result, groundwater flow differs from surface water flow. To sharpen the analysis, surface and subsurface mapping is very important (Figure 6).

Noting descriptions above, hydrogeological basin identification is strongly correlated with regional planning, recalling that hydrogeological boundaries rarely coincide with administrative boundaries (Figure 7).

Figure 5. An illustration hydrogeological basins and groundwater behaviour.

Figure 6. An illustration of the importance of hydrogeological schematization by means of surface and subsurface mapping.

Figure 7. Groundwater basin setting: hydrogeological boundaries and administrative boundaries. Aquifer 1 has local recharge-discharge system, aquifer 2 has intermediate system, and aquifer 3 has regional system (Deny Juanda P., 2006).

5. Hydrogeological System of Tigaraksa Area

Hydrogeological study has been done at Tigaraksa, the administration centre of Tangerang Regency. Based on subsurface analysis, the groundwater basin of Tangerang Regency is composed of three productive aquifers with common dip to the north (Figure 8). The aquifers consist of: the volcanic deposits of Genteng Formation, Banten Tuff Formation, and alluvium aquifer. The aquifers are located at 0 – 40 m up to more than 100 m (Table 3). In the aquifer systems, there are layers of interstitial clay deposits with thickness of 1 – 5 m, as impermeable lenses.

Table 3. Aquifer stratification.

 

Draft 2

19 Juni 2007

Aquifer group

Depth (m)

Thickness

Material

I

0-40

3-7 m

Clay, sand, conglomerate

II

40-100

2-76 m

Breccia, sand, clayish sand, tufaceous sand

III

> 100

8-22 m

sand, tufaceous sand with clay intercalation

he basal boundary is The Bojongmanik Formation with impermeable properties. River plays role as the west boundary, sea water as north boundary, and normal fault as east boundary. Based on potentiometric map, groundwater comes from the southern area of the regency, as recharge area then flows northward through Alluvium, Banten Tuff, and Genteng Formation.

From the hydrogeological boundary, it can be concluded that Tigaraksa area lies on the recharge area. Since the development of the area has not considered the hydrogeological setting, it is essential for future regional planning to converts the area as groundwater conservation area with artificial recharge methods, without reducing its current function.

There are three productive aquifers (dip to the north): he volcanic deposits of Genteng Formation, Banten Tuff Formation, and alluvium aquifer. The aquifers are located at 0 – 40 m up to more than 100 m. Layers of interstitial clay deposits with thickness of 1 – 5 m, as impermeable lenses. Based on potentiometric map, groundwater comes from the southern area of the regency. Groundwater flows northward through Alluvium, Banten Tuff, and Genteng Formation.

Figure 8. The hydrogeological setting of Tangerang Regency

6. CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that Tigaraksa area lies on the recharge area of Tangerang Regency. Based on hydrogeological mapping, it can be found that there are layers of porous formation exposed in the area then dipped northward. This condition shows the importance of hydrogeological considerations to spatial planning. It is essential for future regional planning to converts the area as groundwater conservation area with artificial recharge methods, without reducing its current function as capital city.

REFERENCES

1. Baja, Chapman, and Dragovich, 2002, Using GIS-based Continuous Methods for Assessing Agricultural Land Use Potential in Sloping Areas, Journal of Environment and Planning, 29:3-20.
2. Castany G. (1982) Principles et méthodes de l’hydrogéologie Ed. Dunod Université – Bordas, Paris.
3. Deny Juanda Puradimaja, 2006, Hidrogeologi Kawasan Gunungapi dan Karst di Indonesia, Pidato Guru Besar ITB, Desember 2006.
4. Edward J. Kaiser, David R. Godschalk and F. Stuart Chapin, Jr, 1995, Urban Land Use Planning, 4th Edition. Urbana , IL : University of Illinois Press.
5. Fabos, J. Gy, 1985, Land-Use Planning. From Global to Local Challenge. A Downden and Culver book. Environmental Resource Management Series. Chapman and Hall. New York.
6. McHarg, 1969, Design with Nature, John Wiley & Sons
7. Winarso, Haryo, Boy Kombaitan, 1997, The Jabotabek Area: Space Restructuring And The Emergence of Formal Private Residential Developer. Makalah yang dipresentasikan dalam the 4th APSA International Congress on Urban Restructuring in the Fast Growing Asia. Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia 2-4 September, 1997.

Outlining Hydrogeological System using Multivariate Analysis on Groundwater Quality at Mt. Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

26th Annual Indonesian Geologist Association

Join Convention Bali, 2007

Abstract Submission

Outlining Hydrogeological System using Multivariate Analysis on Groundwater Quality at Mt. Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

Author(s) and Affiliations

1. D. Erwin Irawan

2. Deny Juanda Puradimaja

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology,

Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.id)

3. Sudarto Notosiswoyo

Research Group on Earth Resources Exploration, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: sudarto@mining.itb.ac.id)

Abstract (no more than 200 words)

Volcanic slopes are important sources of water. Due to altitude effects they receive significant amounts of precipitation whereas the lower regions often receive far less (<500 mm/year). In densely populated tropical regions, like Java, Indonesia, this water source is of increasing importance both for irrigation and domestic uses.

As case study, more than 100 groundwater springs are monitored and analysed on Mt. Ciremai, central Java, Indonesia. More than 15 variables have been measured. The results show radial flow patterns, a dependency on slope aspect and altitude and lithology. The aquifer system was found to be a combination of porous (several meters) and fractured rock that is built up of lava and volcanic breccias.

The analysis are involving multivariate analysis of principal component analysis and cluster analysis to trace the dominant group of variables which control spring emergence. This paper will elaborate on the relationship between physical and chemical properties of groundwater as hydrogeological tracer with local groundwater systems on volcanic slopes.

Key words:

1 Strato volcanoes

2 Hydrogeological Tracer

3 Multivariate analysis