Hydrogeological Analysis in Regional Planning of Tigaraksa City, Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia

Hydrogeological Analysis in Regional Planning of Tigaraksa City,
Tangerang, Banten, Indonesia

Deny Juanda Puradimaja

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mineral Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.ac.id)

B. Kombaitan

Research Group on Regional Planning, School of Architecture, Planning, and Policy Development, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: kombaitan@pl.itb.ac.id)

D. Erwin Irawan

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Mineral Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.ac.id)

Keywords: groundwater basin, groundwater recharge area, regional planning

Submitted to: Jurnal Geoaplika

Abstract

Since 1980’s large scale housing has been developed at suburban areas of Jakarta to respond the needs. Tigaraksa is one of the areas, with 1.110 km2 area, 3.185.944 of population. The area then was selected as the capital of Tangerang Regency. The goal of this paper is to reconfirm the hydrogeological condition of Tangerang Regency, especially Tigaraksa area based on new data as materials to evaluate the hydrogeological role of the area. To achieve the goal, the methodology must cover surface and sub surface condition. Surface observation and geoelectrical mapping has been done to expose the hydrogeological setting as working basis for planners. It can be concluded that Tigaraksa area lies on the recharge area of Tangerang Regency. Based on hydrogeological mapping, it can be found that there are layers of porous formation exposed in the area then dipped northward. This condition shows the importance of hydrogeological considerations to spatial planning. It is essential for future regional planning to converts the area as groundwater conservation area with artificial recharge methods, without reducing its current function as capital city.

1. BACKGROUND

Since 1980’s large scale housing has been developed at suburban areas of Jakarta to respond the needs (Winarso dan Kombaitan, 1997). One of them is Tigaraksa which then be used as the capital of Tangerang Regency (Figure 1 and Table 1). The statistics of the area are 1.110 km2, 3.185.944 of population, 2869 of density.

Sustainability concept makes a bridge between today and future. Usage of natural resources without exhausting them. The balance between utilization and conservation of the natural resources.

Figure 1. Map of town distribution in Jabodetabek area (in hectares, Ha)

Table 1. List of town distribution in Jabodetabek area (in hectares, Ha)

2. OBJECTIVES

The hydrogeological and spatial planning study is objected to reconfirm the hydrogeological condition of Tangerang Regency, especially Tigaraksa area based on new data. The study will be used as materials to evaluate the appropriate step to conserve water recharge in the area.

3. METHODOLOGY

Hydrogeological condition is a combination of two main aspects: the solid and the fluid. The solid aspect comprises the material and the geometry of an aquifer and the hydraulic properties of the aquifer; while the fluid aspect involves the hydraulic behaviour of the groundwater. Therefore, two complementary methods have been carried out in this study (Figure 2):

(1). Surface mapping of volcanic aquifer system with 1 : 25.000 scale, to identify the geometry of the aquifer and the hydraulic properties of soil (unconfined aquifer). The data were obtained from observation of nearly 100 wells and 20 geoelectrical shot points.

(2). Flow net analysis, to identify the groundwater flow system. The main data is groundwater level position.

Figure 2. Flowchart of the research

4. BACKGROUND THEORIES

4.1 Sustainable Regional Planning

Planning is a decision-making process regarding “the future”. On each scale of planning process, spatial rules of the social life have been formed. In planning process preparing scenarios on community scale, firstly spatial analyses should be carried out. Several regional planning issues of new town / large-scale housing development: Peri-urbanization processes: “kotadesasi”; Productive agricultural land conversion to urban use’ Job-housing mismatch: toward a self-contained new town development; Sustainable principles: Macro level: physical suitability of such development; Micro level: land use based on land suitability analyses.

Throughout the world, spatial planning strategies focusing on the sustainable development have ecological approach. Both regional and urban planning processes have been based upon ecological issues. Each land is not suitable for every kind of land uses or is suitable for only one land use from the natural resource point of view. Two important analyses in urban planning processes: a) Supply side: development capacity analyses; b) Demand side: development needs analyses; c) Sustainable approach: balancing the demand to supply side. Development capacity analyses: a) Macro level: physical suitability of such development; b) Micro level: -> location suitability mapping: Spatial pattern of factors is sensitive to local principles -> Relative suitability of locations for specific land use categories (Figure 3).

4.2 Hydrogeological Considerations in Regional Planning

Large scale housing requires continuous supplies of water. This has been the major issue for cities and regions in Indonesia. Regional planning theories recognizes six physical parameters biotic and non biotic: slope, rock / soil, water, vegetation, earth resources, and geological hazards. Therefore, it can be noticed that planning needs to identify natural resources and potentials. The position of water in third rank suggests the critical role of water as controlling factor in regional planning. Moreover, hydrogeological condition plays important role to regional planning design, which is composed of three parts (Figure 4): hydrometeorology, hydrology or watershed, and hydrogeological basin. The technical procedures must be convergence between mapping stages as drawn on Table 2.

Figure 3. The five tasks for land classification and urban land use design (Kaiser et al., 1995)

Figure 4. The three integrated system of water (G. Castany, 1982)

Table 2. The convergence of groundwater potential evaluation in planning stages

(Deny Juanda P., 2006).

Consecutively groundwater as part of water resources needs to manage based on hydrogeological basin. Therefore groundwater management must consist of: hydrogeological mapping in various scale (regional and technical), understanding of hydrogeological character of INPUT (recharge area) – PROCESSES (flowing area) – and OUTPUT (discharge area), control on groundwater contamination (natural and man-made contamination) through optimization and groundwater conservation, and control on aquifer capacity to supply sustainable water needs (Figure 5).

Recharge area is where rain or surface water infiltrates to the aquifer. Discharge area is where many groundwater springs emerge to surface. Flowing area is where the groundwater flows from recharge to discharge area. The 3 areas are controlled by geological condition. As a result, groundwater flow differs from surface water flow. To sharpen the analysis, surface and subsurface mapping is very important (Figure 6).

Noting descriptions above, hydrogeological basin identification is strongly correlated with regional planning, recalling that hydrogeological boundaries rarely coincide with administrative boundaries (Figure 7).

Figure 5. An illustration hydrogeological basins and groundwater behaviour.

Figure 6. An illustration of the importance of hydrogeological schematization by means of surface and subsurface mapping.

Figure 7. Groundwater basin setting: hydrogeological boundaries and administrative boundaries. Aquifer 1 has local recharge-discharge system, aquifer 2 has intermediate system, and aquifer 3 has regional system (Deny Juanda P., 2006).

5. Hydrogeological System of Tigaraksa Area

Hydrogeological study has been done at Tigaraksa, the administration centre of Tangerang Regency. Based on subsurface analysis, the groundwater basin of Tangerang Regency is composed of three productive aquifers with common dip to the north (Figure 8). The aquifers consist of: the volcanic deposits of Genteng Formation, Banten Tuff Formation, and alluvium aquifer. The aquifers are located at 0 – 40 m up to more than 100 m (Table 3). In the aquifer systems, there are layers of interstitial clay deposits with thickness of 1 – 5 m, as impermeable lenses.

Table 3. Aquifer stratification.

 

Draft 2

19 Juni 2007

Aquifer group

Depth (m)

Thickness

Material

I

0-40

3-7 m

Clay, sand, conglomerate

II

40-100

2-76 m

Breccia, sand, clayish sand, tufaceous sand

III

> 100

8-22 m

sand, tufaceous sand with clay intercalation

he basal boundary is The Bojongmanik Formation with impermeable properties. River plays role as the west boundary, sea water as north boundary, and normal fault as east boundary. Based on potentiometric map, groundwater comes from the southern area of the regency, as recharge area then flows northward through Alluvium, Banten Tuff, and Genteng Formation.

From the hydrogeological boundary, it can be concluded that Tigaraksa area lies on the recharge area. Since the development of the area has not considered the hydrogeological setting, it is essential for future regional planning to converts the area as groundwater conservation area with artificial recharge methods, without reducing its current function.

There are three productive aquifers (dip to the north): he volcanic deposits of Genteng Formation, Banten Tuff Formation, and alluvium aquifer. The aquifers are located at 0 – 40 m up to more than 100 m. Layers of interstitial clay deposits with thickness of 1 – 5 m, as impermeable lenses. Based on potentiometric map, groundwater comes from the southern area of the regency. Groundwater flows northward through Alluvium, Banten Tuff, and Genteng Formation.

Figure 8. The hydrogeological setting of Tangerang Regency

6. CONCLUSION

It can be concluded that Tigaraksa area lies on the recharge area of Tangerang Regency. Based on hydrogeological mapping, it can be found that there are layers of porous formation exposed in the area then dipped northward. This condition shows the importance of hydrogeological considerations to spatial planning. It is essential for future regional planning to converts the area as groundwater conservation area with artificial recharge methods, without reducing its current function as capital city.

REFERENCES

1. Baja, Chapman, and Dragovich, 2002, Using GIS-based Continuous Methods for Assessing Agricultural Land Use Potential in Sloping Areas, Journal of Environment and Planning, 29:3-20.
2. Castany G. (1982) Principles et méthodes de l’hydrogéologie Ed. Dunod Université – Bordas, Paris.
3. Deny Juanda Puradimaja, 2006, Hidrogeologi Kawasan Gunungapi dan Karst di Indonesia, Pidato Guru Besar ITB, Desember 2006.
4. Edward J. Kaiser, David R. Godschalk and F. Stuart Chapin, Jr, 1995, Urban Land Use Planning, 4th Edition. Urbana , IL : University of Illinois Press.
5. Fabos, J. Gy, 1985, Land-Use Planning. From Global to Local Challenge. A Downden and Culver book. Environmental Resource Management Series. Chapman and Hall. New York.
6. McHarg, 1969, Design with Nature, John Wiley & Sons
7. Winarso, Haryo, Boy Kombaitan, 1997, The Jabotabek Area: Space Restructuring And The Emergence of Formal Private Residential Developer. Makalah yang dipresentasikan dalam the 4th APSA International Congress on Urban Restructuring in the Fast Growing Asia. Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia 2-4 September, 1997.

Outlining Hydrogeological System using Multivariate Analysis on Groundwater Quality at Mt. Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

26th Annual Indonesian Geologist Association

Join Convention Bali, 2007

Abstract Submission

Outlining Hydrogeological System using Multivariate Analysis on Groundwater Quality at Mt. Ciremai, West Java, Indonesia

Author(s) and Affiliations

1. D. Erwin Irawan

2. Deny Juanda Puradimaja

Research Group on Applied Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology,

Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: erwin@gc.itb.id)

3. Sudarto Notosiswoyo

Research Group on Earth Resources Exploration, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung,

Jl. Ganesha No. 10, 40132 Bandung, Indonesia (e-mail: sudarto@mining.itb.ac.id)

Abstract (no more than 200 words)

Volcanic slopes are important sources of water. Due to altitude effects they receive significant amounts of precipitation whereas the lower regions often receive far less (<500 mm/year). In densely populated tropical regions, like Java, Indonesia, this water source is of increasing importance both for irrigation and domestic uses.

As case study, more than 100 groundwater springs are monitored and analysed on Mt. Ciremai, central Java, Indonesia. More than 15 variables have been measured. The results show radial flow patterns, a dependency on slope aspect and altitude and lithology. The aquifer system was found to be a combination of porous (several meters) and fractured rock that is built up of lava and volcanic breccias.

The analysis are involving multivariate analysis of principal component analysis and cluster analysis to trace the dominant group of variables which control spring emergence. This paper will elaborate on the relationship between physical and chemical properties of groundwater as hydrogeological tracer with local groundwater systems on volcanic slopes.

Key words:

1 Strato volcanoes

2 Hydrogeological Tracer

3 Multivariate analysis

Chemical and Isotopic Approach to Identify Hyperthermal Groundwater Origin in The Parigi Fracture Limestone Aquifer, Mt. Kromong Area, West Java – Indonesia

Chemical and Isotopic Approach to Identify Hyperthermal Groundwater Origin in The Parigi Fracture Limestone Aquifer, Mt. Kromong Area, West Java – Indonesia

Deny Juanda Puradimaja, Hendri Silaen, Dasapta Erwin Irawan

Applied Geology Research Group, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology Mineral

Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia – Jl. Ganesa 10, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, Tel/Fax: +62 22 251 0802 – denyjp@gc.itb.ac.id

Submitted t: Journal of Hydrology

Abstract Parigi Limestone Aquifer is exposed mainly at Mount (Mt) Kromong areas. The formation exposure lies at Palimanan, 20 km to the west of Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia. There are 13 hot springs emerge from fracture aquifer in limestone and intrusion rock. Three (3) hot springs of limestone aquifer are containing traces of oil seeps. Ten (10) groundwater samples have been tested to measure the concentration of major elements and stable isotope (Deuterium and Oxygen-18).

Hot spring samples from limestone aquifer system of Mt. Picung and Kali Asin area are characterized by Cl/HCO3 and Cl/SO4-type water. Based on Piper plot, hot spring samples are analogous with hot spring samples from Mt. Ciremai, but separated from normal temperature springs.

Moreover, the stable isotope compositions in the deuterium and oxygen-18 chart show the similarity of hot spring sample with meteoric water composition. The condition indicates the origin of hot spring water from meteoric water. The chart also show the shifting of isotopic line to formation water area. The shifting indicates mixing process of meteoric water with formation water from deep-seated aquifer. The interaction confirms the multiphase flow between groundwater and traces of oil seeps in Parigi Limestone Aquifer.

Keywords : aquifer system, groundwater chemistry, multiphase flow, isotope hydrogeology


1. INTRODUCTION

Mount (Mt) Kromong is located at Palimanan area, 20 km to the west of Cirebon, West Java, Indonesia (Figure 1). This mountain is sited 15 km to the north from Mt. Ciremai (3078 masl). Geothermal features found in the northern part of Mt. Kromong comprise 13 hot springs and a mud pool, with temperature ranges between 32,8 to 58 oC. The hot springs located in four different areas, namely Mt. Picung area (8 hot springs), Kali Asin area (3 hot springs), Kedondong area (1 hot spring), and Bobos area (1 hot spring). Three hot springs in Mt. Picung area are mixed with oil seeps.

Previous studies on regional geology, tectonics, and stratigraphy in Palimanan area had been carried out by Pringgoprawiro (1976), Adnan (1991), Situmorang (1995), and Djuri (1996). Kartokusumo (1982) also reported the result of preliminary study on hot springs hydrochemistry. However, there is no data available on the utilization of stable isotope for hot spring study in this area.

The combination of oxygen isotope, deuterium isotope, and water chemistry had been used in many studies on hot water origin. White (1957), Craig (1963), Clayton et.al. (1966) examined the variations of chemical and isotopic composition of hot water, which provide an important tool for determining different types of water. The hot water could be generated from meteoric water, formation water, magmatic type, or the mixing of different types. The Craig and Clayton models has been used in an attempt to understand the characteristics of hot (hyperthermal) water aquifer based on chemical composition of hot water. The flow system is then analyzed based on geologic, topographic, and hydrologic conditions.

2. HYDROGEOLOGICAL SETTING

Studies carried out by Pringgoprawiro (1976), Situmorang (1995), and Djuri (1996) had shown that the stratigraphy of the area consists of five lithological units as seen in Figure 2.

1. Cibulakan Formation, composed of Middle Miocene shale with few sandstone and limestone intercalations. At Jatibarang area, approx. 20 km to the north of study area, oil and gas are produced from those sandstones and limestone layers.

2. Parigi Formation, composed of Late Miocene – Early Pliocene limestone with the maximum thickness of 150 meters. Oil is also produced from reef limestone of this unit.

3. Cisubuh Formation, composed of Late Pliocene shale/clay. No hydrocarbon was found.

4. Plio-Pleistocene Intrusive Rocks, composed of andesite, hornblende andesite, and hyperstene andesite. The intrusion took place during Plio-Pleistocene time and intruded the limestone and shale layer.

5. Quaternary Volcanic Rock, composed of breccias, lavas, and tuff. These deposits derived from Ciremai volcano which is located 15 km to the north of the area. Kromong breccias contain fragments from older sediment layers.

The geological structure of mount Kromong is associated with the southeast – northwest and southwest – northeast trending fault systems, which characterize the regional structure of West Java (Adnan, 1991; Djuri, 1996). The thermal discharges in Kali Asin area are located near to the southeast – northwest normal fault, while the thermal discharges in Mt. Picung area are located near to the southwest – northeast normal fault, east – west strike slip fault, and southeast – northwest normal fault (see Figure 3).

Based on the geological condition and result of spring’s observation, the aquifer system in this area can be divided into three types:

1. Volcanic aquifer, composed of fracture aquifer in lavas layer of Quaternary Volcanic Rocks. Several normal springs are found in this aquifer with low temperature (21,4 – 24 oC) and high discharge (70 – 159 l/sec; IWACO, 1989).

2. Carbonates aquifer, composed of fracture aquifer in limestone layer. Eleven hot springs are found in this aquifer with high temperature (33,8 – 58 oC) and low discharge (up to 0,4 l/sec; fluctuated by rainfall effect).

3. Intrusive rock aquifer, composed of fracture aquifer in intrusion rock and porous aquifer in weathering intrusion rock. Two hot springs with high temperature (36,5 – 37,2 oC) and 3 springs with low temperature (26,8 – 28,3 oC) are found in this aquifer. Spring discharges are about 0,2 to 0,8 l/sec.

The study area has a high annual rainfall (1500 – 3200 mm/year). Maximum rainfall occurs during the month of November to March, while minimum rainfall in May to September (see Figure 4).

Six of eight hot springs in Mt. Picung area appear only during the rainy season (March – April 2002), while in August 2001 (dry season) there are only 2 hot springs remained. The total discharge rate of each hot spring also fluctuated from 0,1 l/sec in dry season to 2 l/sec in rainy season.

3. WATER TYPES

Sixteen water chemistry analyses have been carried out in the laboratory, using samples collected from 7 normal springs, 8 hot springs (5 in dry season and 3 in rainy season), and 1 mud pool. The parameter of analysis comprises major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, and SO4) and minor elements (B and F) (see Table 1).

In limestone aquifer system of Mt. Picung and Kali Asin area (PC1, PC2a/b, PC6, PC7, KA1, and KA2), hot water is characterized by Cl/HCO3 and Cl/SO4-type water (see Figure 5 for Mt. Picung area) with neutral pH (7-8) and high chloride content (2438 – 5095 mg/l), high bicarbonate (1803 – 1405 mg/l), and low sulphate (except KA1:4755 mg/l). Low B/Cl and F/Cl ratios indicate the mixing process of meteoric water with water from deeper aquifer (White, 1957). Meanwhile, the high bicarbonate indicates the occurrence of magmatic process.

Hot water in intrusive rock aquifer of Kedondong 1 and Bobos hot springs is characterized by HCO3-type water with neutral pH and high bicarbonate content (452,3 – 844,7 mg/l). Relative high B/Cl ratios indicate the magmatic water influence.

Hot water from mud pool of Kedondong area (MP) shows SO4-type water with high sulphate content (4755 – 6128 mg/l) and acid condition (pH=2). All water from normal springs is bicarbonate type with neutral pH.

4. HYPERTHERMAL WATER ORIGIN

Oxygen-18 and Deuterium are utilized as indicators for hot water origin (Craig, 1963) and degree of water-rock interaction at high temperature (Clayton et.al., 1966). Five isotopic analyses using deuterium (D) and oxygen-18 (18O) have been carried out in the laboratory on samples collected from 1 normal spring of intrusive rocks aquifer, 3 hot springs of limestone aquifer, and 1 hot spring of intrusive rocks aquifer. The stable isotope compositions of these samples are listed in Table 1.

The isotopic compositions of water from Kedondong 1 and Kedondong 2 springs are close to meteoric water line, dD = 8 d18O + 10 for the global meteoric water line (see Figure 6). Undoubtedly, the water is derived from meteoric water. The comparation of isotope composition of Kedondong 1 and Kedondong 2 indicates an 18O enrichment as a result of water – rock interaction at high temperature.

The values of dD and d18O for Mt. Picung 2, 6, and 7 hot springs water are higher than Kedondong springs (see Figure 7). The sequence of dD and d18O increases, starts from PC6 (-42;5;-5,37), PC2 (-41.2;-4,7), to PC7 (-41.0;-3,18). Such increase reflects the isotope enrichment process due to steam loss of hot water. However, the shifting of isotopic compositions of hot water also indicates the mixing of water from deeper aquifer with shallow groundwater (meteoric origin). The deep water could be originated from formation water or brine.

FLOW SYSTEM

The main source of water in geothermal system is meteoric water that comes from rainfall or shallow groundwater (Craig, 1963). In limestone aquifer of Mt. Picung area, the fluctuation of hot spring discharge is related to the rainfall, marked by the significant increase of discharge and number of springs in rainy season. Fracture and solution opening are the characteristic features of the limestone aquifer. These features enable high infiltration rate in limestone aquifer.

The result of chemical and isotopic analyses also indicated that the meteoric water has a significant influence on the hot spring system, and that Mt. Picung hot water is resulted from the mixing of shallow groundwater (meteoric origin) with deeper aquifer water.

The Cl – 18O diagram (see Figure 8) shows that the 18O increase is corresponding with the chloride increase. The chloride type water often occurs as formation water or regional flows groundwater. In this case, the decrease of chloride is controlled by the amount of meteoric water mixed with deep water. The more meteoric water mixed with deep water, the lower 18O and chloride concentrations in hot water.

The mixing process of meteoric with deep water for PC6 springs is greater than other springs, due to higher volume of meteoric water available. The recharge system of PC6 hot spring is better than PC2 and PC7 hot springs. The PC6 spring is located near the west – east fault (see Figure 3), presumably the main channel of meteoric water flows to the aquifer beneath. On the other hand, the southwest – northeast and southeast – northwest normal faults are main conduits for formation water to emerge to the surface (see Figure 9).

As a matter of fact, the number and the discharge rate of springs in intrusive rock aquifer are relatively stabile. Their hot water isotopic composition and chloride concentration strongly indicate its meteoric origin. Such condition is made possible by relatively poor flow system, due to the existence of less fracture forms.

5. RELATION OF HOT WATER TO OIL SEEPAGE

Hydrocarbon occurs in Parigi limestone layer, which is known as hydrocarbon bearing layer in Jatibarang oil field, north of Palimanan area. The existence of hydrocarbon in hot water aquifer of Mt. Picung area is detectable from the presence of oil droplets in hot water of PC4, PC6, and PC8. Since oil seeping only occurs during rainy season, we can conclude that it is caused by hot water movements.

Observation on limestone outcrop – near rock quarry – shows the occurrence of dome-like shape opening filled with asphalt. In this case, the fracture and solution opening act as oil trap; while in other parts they also act as medium for hot water to emerge to the surface as hot springs and oil seeping.

However, oil seeping is not spreading to the whole area of Mt. Picung. It only occurs near the west – east fault, the same location where the meteoric water infiltrates. Hence, hot water flow containing hydrocarbon is presumably generated by the meteoric water heating process near this fault.

 

6. CONCLUSION

Using chemical tracer and isotopic ratio, it can be inferred that hot water in limestone aquifer system of Mt. Picung and Kali Asin areas is resulted from the mixing of shallow groundwater and deep aquifer water, while hot water in intrusive rock aquifer of Kedondong 1 and Bobos hot springs belongs to meteoric origin.

The values of dD and d18O in water from Mt. Picung 2, 6, and 7 hot springs are higher than Kedondong spring, indicating that the isotope enrichment process occurred due to mixing of shallow groundwater of meteoric origin with formation water from deeper aquifer. Such inference is also justifiable from the occurrence of high composition of chloride.

In Mt. Picung area, the limestone aquifer properties such as fracture and opening solution significantly determine the occurrence of hot springs and oil seeping. On the other hand, the west-east fault, southwest – northeast and southeast – northwest normal faults act as the medium for hot water to flow from heat source to the surface.

7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors recognize many inputs of potentiometric map from Lambok Hutasoit, Ph.D and undergraduate students whom have helped the data acquisition.


REFERENCE

Adnan A., Sukowitono, and Supriyanto, 1991, Jatibarang Sub Basin – A Half Graben Model in The Onshore of Northwest Java, Proceedings of Indonesian Petroleum Association.

Bowen, R., 1989, Geothermal Resources, Elsevier Science Publisher, New York.

Craig, 1963, The Isotopic Geochemistry of Water and Carbon in Geothermal Areas, Nuclear Geology of Geothermal Areask, Spoleto.

Djuri, 1995, Geologic Map Arjawinangun Quadrangle, Geological Research and Development Centre, Bandung.

Edwards, L.M., Chilingar, G.V., Rieke, H.H., dan Fertl, W.H., 1982, Handbook of Geothermal Energy, Gulf Publishing Co.

Ellis, A.J. dan Mahon, W.A.J., 1977, Chemistry of Geothermal System, Academic Press Inc. Olando.

Hoefs, J., 1987, Stable Isotop Geochemistry 3rd edition, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg.

Kartokusumo W. S., 1984, Report on Study of Hotsprings in Tampomas and Ciremai Areas, Directorate of Volcanology, Bandung.

Pringgoprawiro H., Suwito P., dan Roskamil, 1977, The Kromong Carbonate Rocks and Their Relationship with the Cibulakan and Parigi Formation, Proceeding of Indonesian Petroleum Association.

Situmorang, T., 1995, Volcanology Map of Mt. Ciremai, West Java-Indonesia, Directorate of Volcanology.

White, D.E., 1957, Magmatic, Connate, and Metamorphic Waters, Geo. Soc. America Bull.

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES (in separate files)

Figure 1. Location map.

Figure 2. Geological map of the study area (TH =Telaga Herang spring, Bj=Bojong spring, TR=Telaga Remis, TN=TelagaNilam, Kdd=Kedondong, GJ=Mt. Jaya, PC=Mt. Picung, KA=Kali Asin, Bbs=Bobos, MP = Mud Pool).

Figure 3. Detailed geological map of Mt. Picung area, Palimanan.

Figure 4. Rainfall fluctuations observed from three rain gauge station during July 2001 – May 2002.

Figure 5. Comparison of chemical and isotopic composition of hot spring waters of Mt. Picung area, Palimanan.

Figure 6. Diagram Cl. SO4, and HCO3 of spring and hot spring waters of Palimanan area.

Figure 7. Relation of δD and δ 18O of hot spring and spring water.

Figure 8. Relation of chloride and δ 18O composition.

Figure 9. Schematic model of hot (hyperthermal) water of Mt. Picung area, Palimanan.

Table 1. Chemical and isotopic composition of water from springs at Palimanan area.

Rekreasi KK Geologi Terapan

Anggota KKGT beserta keluarga telah membuktikan kekompakan dengan rekreasi bersama. Terdapat 9 keluarga beserta timnya masing-masing berekreasi ke Sea World dan Dunia Fantasi (Dufan) pada hari minggu 1 Juli 2007 dengan menumpang 2 buah bus. Serunya acara ini didukung pula situasi arena rekreasi yang penuh sesak pengunjung, menyambut liburan sekolah 2007. Riuhnya suasana tidak menyurutkan semangat tim untuk sepuas-puasnya menikmati wahana-wahanan yang ada di Dufan. Walaupun harus rela antri hingga puluhan meter. Namun tidak ada yang terlihat mengantri Wahana Tornado. Lelah berekreasi, 50 an peserta pulang ke Bandung ba’da Maghrib dan tiba pkl 22.30. Ketua KKGT, Prof.Deny Juanda, mengucapkan selamat atas kerja kerasnya selama 1 semester, dan sampai jumpa ke rekreasi berikutnya semester depan. Berikut salah satu foto yang kebetulan menangkap geliat sang Tornado.

The spinning tornado

KK GT telah mengadakan Forum Jawa Barat Selatan[info lembaga] KK GT telah mengadakan Forum Jawa Barat Selatan

KK Geologi Terapan telah menginisiasi kerjasama bersama Pemprov Jabar melalui Bapeda Jabar mengenai perencanaan wilayah Jawa Barat selatan. Acara tersebut telah diadakan pada Hari/Tgl Rabu, 23 Mei 2007 di Bumi Sawunggaling. Acara ini dibuka oleh Prof. Sudarto Notosiswoyo selaku Dekan FIKTM dan dihadiri lebih dari 40 peserta. Empat orang nara sumber telah memaparkan hasil kajian awal masing-masing, terdiri dari: Dr. Prihadi Sumintadireja dari KK Geologi Terapan, Dicky Saromi, MSc dari Bapeda Jabar, Ir. Dewi dari Distamben Jabar, dan Prof. Djoko Sujarto dari Planologi ITB.

Selengkapnya di http://www.fiktm.itb.ac.id/kk-geologi_terapan/?p=47

PEMBUKAAN PROGRAM STUDI MAGISTER TEKNIK AIRTANAH

Meneruskan berita dari http://www.fiktm.itb.ac.id.Program Studi Magister Teknik Airtanah adalah program studi baru di ITB yang berfokus pada Hidrogeologi akan mulai beroperasi mulai Semester I-2007/2008. Calon mahasiswa adalah lulusan sarjana dari Program Studi Teknik Geologi, Teknik Pertambangan, Teknik Geofisika, Geofisika dan Meteorologi, Teknik Perminyakan, Teknik Sipil, Geografi Fisik, Teknik Lingkungan serta Fisika Bumi.

Untuk angkatan pertama, Program Studi Magister Teknik Airtanah memberikan Beasiswa Unggulan dari Departemen Pendidikan Nasional untuk 20 calon mahasiswa yang lolos seleksi. Beasiswa ini diutamakan bagi Sarjana dengan prestasi yang sangat memuaskan atau karyawan Pemerintah Daerah, LSM dan industri di lingkungan yang relevan dengan pengelolaan airtanah.

Persyaratan pelamar:
TOEFL atau tes yang setara dengan nilai minimal 450
Tes Potensi Akademik (TPA) minimal 450.

Bagi yang berminat dapat mengirimkan surat lamaran dengan lampiran:
1) Transkrip S1
2) Hasil TOEFL
3) Hasil Tes Potensi Akademik
4) Abstrak rencana penelitan (lebih diutamakan)

Melalui pos ke:
Sekretaris Program Studi Magister Teknik Airtanah
Fakultas Ilmu Kebumian dan Teknik Mineral Institut Teknologi Bandung
Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung 40132

Melalui fax ke no 022-2504209,

Melalui email ke:

airtanah@fiktm.itb.ac.id cc: lew@mining.itb.ac.id .

Surat lamaran selambat-lambatnya dapat kami terima tanggal 30 Juni 2007.