Makalah ini berawal dari undangan dari Dr. Niazar dari University of Manchester yang masuk ke dalam inbox email saya. Isinya meminta kesediaan saya untuk bersama-sama menyusun proposal untuk dikirimkan ke kompetisi RCUK-DIPI. Inti dari proposal ini akan selaras dengan fokus riset saya di bidang hidrokimia dengan penekanan pada proses kontaminasi.
“Tawaran yang menarik”, pikir saya waktu itu. Dan langsung saja email itu saya balas dengan respon positif.
We’re on it for about 3 weeks, then we came to a very specific topic. “Apakah polusi udara akan mempengaruhi kualitas air permukaan dan air tanah?”.
Makalah utuh sedang disusun untuk memberi contoh bahwa riset dalam tahap proposal pun dapat dipublikasikan.
A view on air and water pollution in Jakarta and Bandung area
Vahid J. Niazar (Univ of Manchester) and Dasapta E. Irawan (Institut Teknologi Bandung)
August 7, 2016
Introduction The following is our perspectives on water quality research landscape in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia, as part of our proposal to RCUK-DIPI grant program.
Jakarta and Bandung are two growing mega cities with a very different geographical setting. Jakarta started off as the lowland coastal area which is now the capital of Indonesia, while Bandung lies in volcanic highlands environment with a bowl-shaped topographical land form. Both cities are developed with many industrial activities. Factories have been built surrounding the main cities to form satellite zones. As one the impact, settlement areas grows rapidly around the perimeter. Due to this development, the number of motor vehicles (cars, motorbike, and trucks) raises fast. These have raised many environmental problems, from direct waste dumping to the air pollution.
Air quality Based on Jakarta Environmental Management Agency, air contaminants like Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Non Methane Hydrocarbon (NHMC) are all above the permissible limit. The highest NO2 ever recorded was 2.5 micron/m3, highest CO was 8 micron/m3 (both min limit is 9 micron/m3), and highest NHMC was 0,2 micron/m3 (min limit is 0.24 micron/m3).
The same situation goes for Bandung. The average contribution of Carbonmonoxide (CO) from vehicle emission of 599 tonnes/year or 98% of the total CO emission in Bandung. Being developed as tourism-based city, the CO concentration in Bandung will increase in week ends to reach 2500 kg/day, due to large flowing traffic of vehicle from neighboring city. This air pollution is aggravated by the bowl-shaped morphological feature of Bandung basin.
Water quality However the increase of nitrogen-based substances, like Nitrite and Nitrate, have been reported since early 2000’s. Concentration of N-NO2 of 0.01-0.03 ppm and N-NO3 of 0.46-10.19 ppm have been recorded in several dug wells in the Ciliwung riverbank in Bandung-Bogor area, while the concentration of N-NO2 and N-NO3 in the river water of the same area was 0.01-0.45 ppm and 1.43-2.58 ppm. In Jakarta N-NOx concentration was also found in dugwell, but lower in confined aquifer than in unconfined aquifer. Research on studying groundwater and river water interactions has not been largely done in both Jakarta and Bandung area. The close relationship between groundwater and river water in both Cikapundung (Bandung) and Ciliwung (Jakarta) induces chemical mixing in the water.
Possible causes Domestic waste have been mentioned frequently to have caused such elevated concentration of N-Nox in the surface water and groundwater, but no research have been done to see its connections with air pollution. This research is proposed to see how is the mechanism of nitrification processes in tropical sites given the high rainfall, shallow groundwater, and the vast development of watershed. To identify such interactions, we will analyze the concentration of environmental isotopes to see the relationship between atmospheric water, surface water, and groundwater.