Makalah ini berawal dari undangan dari Dr. Niazar dari University of Manchester yang masuk ke dalam inbox email saya. Isinya meminta kesediaan saya untuk bersama-sama menyusun proposal untuk dikirimkan ke kompetisi RCUK-DIPI. Inti dari proposal ini akan selaras dengan fokus riset saya di bidang hidrokimia dengan penekanan pada proses kontaminasi.
“Tawaran yang menarik”, pikir saya waktu itu. Dan langsung saja email itu saya balas dengan respon positif.
We’re on it for about 3 weeks, then we came to a very specific topic. “Apakah polusi udara akan mempengaruhi kualitas air permukaan dan air tanah?”.
Makalah utuh sedang disusun untuk memberi contoh bahwa riset dalam tahap proposal pun dapat dipublikasikan.
A view on air and water pollution in Jakarta and Bandung area
Vahid J. Niazar (Univ of Manchester) and Dasapta E. Irawan (Institut Teknologi Bandung)
August 7, 2016
Introduction The following is our perspectives on water quality research landscape in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia, as part of our proposal to RCUK-DIPI grant program.
Jakarta and Bandung are two growing mega cities with a very different geographical setting. Jakarta started off as the lowland coastal area which is now the capital of Indonesia, while Bandung lies in volcanic highlands environment with a bowl-shaped topographical land form. Both cities are developed with many industrial activities. Factories have been built surrounding the main cities to form satellite zones. As one the impact, settlement areas grows rapidly around the perimeter. Due to this development, the number of motor vehicles (cars, motorbike, and trucks) raises fast. These have raised many environmental problems, from direct waste dumping to the air pollution.
Air quality Based on Jakarta Environmental Management Agency, air contaminants like Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Carbon monoxide (CO), and Non Methane Hydrocarbon (NHMC) are all above the permissible limit. The highest NO2 ever recorded was 2.5 micron/m3, highest CO was 8 micron/m3 (both min limit is 9 micron/m3), and highest NHMC was 0,2 micron/m3 (min limit is 0.24 micron/m3).
The same situation goes for Bandung. The average contribution of Carbonmonoxide (CO) from vehicle emission of 599 tonnes/year or 98% of the total CO emission in Bandung. Being developed as tourism-based city, the CO concentration in Bandung will increase in week ends to reach 2500 kg/day, due to large flowing traffic of vehicle from neighboring city. This air pollution is aggravated by the bowl-shaped morphological feature of Bandung basin.
Water quality However the increase of nitrogen-based substances, like Nitrite and Nitrate, have been reported since early 2000’s. Concentration of N-NO2 of 0.01-0.03 ppm and N-NO3 of 0.46-10.19 ppm have been recorded in several dug wells in the Ciliwung riverbank in Bandung-Bogor area, while the concentration of N-NO2 and N-NO3 in the river water of the same area was 0.01-0.45 ppm and 1.43-2.58 ppm. In Jakarta N-NOx concentration was also found in dugwell, but lower in confined aquifer than in unconfined aquifer. Research on studying groundwater and river water interactions has not been largely done in both Jakarta and Bandung area. The close relationship between groundwater and river water in both Cikapundung (Bandung) and Ciliwung (Jakarta) induces chemical mixing in the water.
Possible causes Domestic waste have been mentioned frequently to have caused such elevated concentration of N-Nox in the surface water and groundwater, but no research have been done to see its connections with air pollution. This research is proposed to see how is the mechanism of nitrification processes in tropical sites given the high rainfall, shallow groundwater, and the vast development of watershed. To identify such interactions, we will analyze the concentration of environmental isotopes to see the relationship between atmospheric water, surface water, and groundwater.
Makalah ini kami tulis sebagai refleksi dari perjalanan riset selama kurang lebih 15 tahun. Beranjak dari penelitian geologi, mengarah ke hidrogeologi, hingga akhir mengaplikasikan beberapa metode statistik untuk mengidentifikasi perilaku air tanah di dalam akuifer. Abstrak ini telah dikirimkan ke ICAS 2016.
Berawal dari metode penggambaran secara grafis Piper pada tahun 1944, kemudian hadir grafik Schoeller dan Stiff, yang ketiganya merupakan visualisasi kualitas air menggunakan pendekatan statistik multivariabel. Hingga belakangan ini terminologi machine learning sangat mengemuka di berbagai bidang. Berawal di bidang biologi dan kedokteran saat ini mulai digunakan di bidang hidrogeologi. Salah satunya untuk mengenali karakter kualitas air tanah dan memisahkannya menjadi beberapa kelompok yang sejenis.
Perkembangan inilah yang coba kami tuliskan dalam makalah ini, semoga bermanfaat. Saat ini kami masih menyusun full paper-nya.
The following link contains our first data paper ever. This is our first experience to publish such type of paper and our first as well to submit an article to the Earth System Science Data (a journal from Copernicus Publishing) although we have noticed the publisher since we went to Vienna in 2011.
This is our first ever Data Paper: ESSDD – Hydrochemical assessment of Semarang area using multivariate statistics https://t.co/UdCfNGR55Z
— Dⓐsapta Erwin Irawan (@dasaptaerwin) August 2, 2016
We collected some water samples and write a report on: why we did it, when, where and how. At first we thought it would be simple since it doesn’t involve the analyses and interpretation part yet. But actually we received a very detail questions from the editor about coordinate system, laboratory procedures. It wasn’t that easy after all. We also inserted some R code that will be used in our upcoming analysis.
We gladly receive your comments.
The hydrogeology of Situ Ciburuy part 1: a review
Authors: Muhammad, G., Irawan, DE., and Brahmantyo, B.
Affiliation(s): Department of Geology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung
Introduction: The lake (Situ) Ciburuy is situated in Padalarang, West Bandung. The lake area was 15 ha and it’s decreasing overtime. We were interested in answering two questions: the lake’s water balance and its interactions with the modified near by environment. This paper covers the first phase of the research to review the available literature and to formulate a research plan.
Material and methods: We did a short bibliometric analysis on Google Scholar (GS) using
Situ Ciburuy as key terms. More general scope literature search were also conducted using Crossref and GS to formulate a research method to answer the two questions. We used
lake hydrochemistry and
lake hydrology as key terms.
Results and discussions: Our 1st search gained 32 papers. All of them are in Indonesian language, but only one discusses geology. Hence we conclude that Situ Ciburuy needs more scientific exposures, specifically on the hydrogeology and land use effect. We gained more than 10,000 results on 2nd search, but only the first 10 pages were counted. We found that the in-out flux is the major component of a lake. In the field campaign we will map the geology, river network, and groundwater level, measuring the influx – outflux discharge, and hydrochemistry. Multivariate statistics will also be applied in the analysis.”
The following is an abstract I wrote with: Fadli Ahmad Naufal (a meteorologist turned map maker) and Ahmad Darul (a geographer who is obsessed with water).
We wrote this piece based on our concern for so many thesis maps which end up only on someone’s hard drive. We believe if those maps can be made online along with the appropriate metadata, they would maximize the visibility of scholarly docs. In return universities (like ITB) can harvest more impact as well as collaborations.
This abstract ws sent to the 2nd TrepSea held by Dept. of Geology. Watch out for that event in September 2016.
Application of integrated QGIS system: an option to increase the visibility of geoscience research in ITB
Fadli Ahmad Naufal1, Dasapta Erwin Irawan1, and Ahmad Darul2
1Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institut Teknologi Bandung
2Faculty of Engineering, Institut Teknologi dan Sains Bandung, Bekasi
The GIS world is currently in the palm of ESRI, with their sophisticated and yet expensive software for most countries. This paper discusses QGIS that has been first developed since 2002 by Gary Sherman. This project was then adopted by Open Source Geospatial Foundation. Having user friendly interface, the QGIS is supported by loyal user/developer to make hundreds of plug ins to enrich its power in spatial analysis.
QGIS is now implementing cloud technology. From its data center in Switzerland, the QGIS offers a free cloud system for personal users and paid services for commercial users. Users can upload their off line documents directly from QGIS desktop. To our perspective, this system can be used to promote ITB’s spatial research outputs, As well as to gain more visibility, it also can put ITB as one of the open source ambassador in SE-Asia. All projects will be available online and citeable to the readers.
We summarize this paper with a strong statement that QGIS and ITB can collaboratively work together to increase research output and its impact to society. We strongly suggest more dissemination of QGIS and other open source projects in ITB.